Corn has several different breeds that are categorized by the characteristics of the endosperm’s tissue.

Pop corn

This corn is probably a result of mutation. It has thing pericarp which makes it suitable for making sweet corn with soft skin. A thick hard endosperm engulfs the starchy endosperm in this type of corn. The starch seed of the endosperm in this corn has higher moisture compared to other types and expand and turn to vapor if heated.

The resulting water vapor that can’t escape the external endosperm builds pressure until it explodes the external layer, inflating the seed. This corn is usually used for making popcorn. The most optimal moisture level for the most inflation of the seed is 14% in this type.

Hard corn

The entirety of this corn’s endosperm is covered with a hard endosperm. This corn’s ripe seeds are round, smooth, and This corn’s cultivation period is between 80 to 100 days and the resulting corn cobs are thin with 8 rows of seed.

Dent corn

This corn is a mixture of soft and hard starch. The part of endosperm with hard starch has more protein. This type of corn is usually cultivated in the U.S. Its cob is relatively large and has between 16 to 30 rows of seed. Among its visual characteristics, we can mention an indentation point on the top of the seed which is because of the drying of the starchy endosperm.

Flour corn

Most of this corn’s endosperm in starch with a thin layer of endosperm that engulfs this starch. Unlike dent corn, this one’s seeds don’t have any indentation. Since this corn can be found in different colors, it is mostly used in food decoration. Its soft endosperm allows it to be used as a food for animals without and grinding necessary.

Sweet corn

this corn’s endosperm is sweet and shiny and, unlike other corns, without starch. Its pericarp is thin and when the seed ripens the sugar inside turns to starch and then into dextrin. Sweet corn is used in different forms such as fresh, canned, or frozen.

Waxy corn

This corn’s endosperm looks like wax and unlike other corns that have about 71 to 72% amylopectin and 28 to 29% amylose in their starch, this one’s starch completely consists of amylopectin which is soft and has adhesive properties. Apart from food consumption, waxy corn is also used in adhesive industries.

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